Week 9

Week 9

Draft Script – Audiovisual script for Assignment 2 Video News Release



[VO – FOOTAGE OF MP TALKING TO ROAD WORKERS ON YEPPOON ROAD] NARRATOR: Newly elected Member for Keppel, Monica Mallory, is promising to improve the quality and make our Queensland roads safer. With two crashes in one hour occurring on the Rockhampton to Yeppoon road at the end of April, the MP is saying ‘enough is enough.’
[GRAB] MONICA MALLORY, MEMBER FOR KEPPEL: “Something needs to be done about the dangerous conditions on Queensland roads – especially what I have seen in the Keppel area alone – and I plan on doing just that.”





NARRATOR: Ms Mallory is already seeking funding for the resurfacing of the entire Rockhampton to Yeppoon road and the duplication of the road into four lanes.


The MP believes that the four-lane road will reduce the likelihood of car-related accidents as well as preventing closures in the event an accident does occur.

[GRAB] MONICA MALLORY: “Quite frankly, one fatality is one too many. The number of commuters from Rockhampton to Yeppoon is too high to not have safe roads. Road safety is our number one priority at this stage.”
[VO – FOOTAGE OF MP TALKING WITH REGULAR COMMUTERS] NARRATOR: Ms Mallory reveals that she has spoken with many citizens of Rockhampton and Yeppoon who have all admitted to recognising this problem.
[GRAB] ANONYMOUS: FREQUENT ROCKHAMPTON TO YEPPOON TRAVELLER: “It is good to finally see a Member addressing one of the biggest issues in our region. I am a victim and a witness to far too many near-misses every day on my way to work.”


Deliver the Script

Listen to the recording here!

Ames (2016) suggests that it is ‘…important to write to support the vision, rather than finding vision to support the writing when writing a news story.’ With this in mind, I envisioned what my video news release would look like if it were to air on television. I referred to what I see on the news and began writing to meet this structure. At this stage after listening back to my recording, I have noticed I need to improve on my overall delivery of the script. I need to decipher between each ‘speaker’ so listeners can clearly tell who is the narrator, the MP, and members of the public. I also need to add more statistics and data into my script to make my information more credible.

Source: Huffington Post, 2016


After reviewing my blog generally, I am confident that all activities have been successfully completed, I have covered the relevant topics for each week, and I have included all references and written them correctly. I have checked grammar, spelling and punctuation, and am happy with the layout of my blog.


Over the course of the term (nine weeks), blog posts for Speech and Script have been completed weekly. These blog posts have consisted of an array of activities that have constituted a complete workbook. These tasks have involved focus on; voice, writing, delivery, recording, visual media, reading, types of talk, and of course, speech and script. By completing these exercises weekly, it has helped to understand the importance of planning, gain useful knowledge for future university courses and in a professional environment, and improve on time management skills.

When reflecting on all of the activities over the course of the term, some tasks were particularly more useful than others. It was found that re-recording a previously recorded news story was a beneficial task to undertake. This is because it became easier to notice improvements in the voice, where errors have been made, or where something has been done well. In week 2, it was required to review what makes a great speech (Ames 2016). This was another useful task as it provided insight into what should be in a speech to make it appealing to the audience, to successfully get a message across, as well as tips on performative techniques. Week 5’s workbook activity for institutional talk was valuable as it compared news interviews with entertainment-oriented interviews. This helped to distinguish between the two and to examine what makes them different. Finally, all activities that involved planning for assignment two were the most useful as they helped understand the requirements of the assignment and assisted in essential planning.

The University of Edinburgh (2015) suggests that essential aspects of assignment planning are; understanding what the assignment is asking, planning the time needed to complete the assignment to a high standard, prioritising, drafting, and mindmapping. As some of the blog activities required planning for the second assignment, a lot of this essential planning has already been completed. This has certainly increased the level of confidence in heading into the final assessment, as majority of the planning can assist in writing the final copy of the maiden speech and video news release. Considering a lot of performance and speaking exercises have taken place, it has also helped in boosting confidence for this aspect of the assignment. Final issues or concerns are to be addressed by continuing individual research and reading work completed by professionals for general ideas.

Muncy (2014) defines that, ‘reflective learning is the process through which students interact with and apply what they are learning to their own life and experiences.’ He adds that the desired educational outcome from blogging is indeed, reflective learning (Muncy 2014). By reflecting and writing views on particular topics each week, it has helped with the overall understanding and improvement of speaking and scripting writing. Considering quite an immense amount of discussion – in class and on forums – as well as individual research has taken place, it is inevitable that an understanding of speech and script has significantly improved. Much effort went into the tasks that required delivery, such as the piece to camera (PTC) and the recording of scripts that helped to improve talking voice and confidence in front of a camera or microphone. It is agreed that using performative techniques has helped to enhance the capabilities of good speech delivery (Ames 2016).

Effective communication is achieved by using all elements of your body and your voice to communicate your message (Ames 2016). Although these weekly workbook activities were time consuming and involved a lot of research, discussion, and thinking, it has been an exceedingly worthwhile assignment. Not only has it provided extensive amounts of useful knowledge and skills for future reference, but it has assisted in time management by keeping up to date week-by-week, and has helped to learn more about myself, how I interact, and how I can improve on how I deliver speeches or speak in a professional environment.


Reference List

Ames, K 2016, COMM12033: Speech and Script Workbook Activities, CQUniversity e-courses, https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/course/view.php?id=3186

Ames, K 2016, COMM12033: Speech and Script Lesson 4: Performance: study guide, CQUniversity e-courses, https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/293232/mod_resource/content/6/COMM12033_Week4_Mod.pdf

Ames, K 2016, COMM12033: Speech and Script Lesson 9: Writing Speech – Script Writing: study guide, CQUniversity e-courses, https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/293247/mod_resource/content/3/COMM12033_Week9_Mod.pdf

Muncy, J. A. 2014, ‘Blogging for Reflection: The Use of Online Journals to Engage Students in Reflective Learning’, Marketing Education Review, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 101-114, viewed 12 May 2016, http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.cqu.edu.au/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=e3ad017e-e148-4c9f-9d7f-8f6ebe10b4fc%40sessionmgr104&hid=119

The University of Edinburgh (UE) 2015, Assignments: planning and drafting, 2015, viewed 13 May 2016, http://www.ed.ac.uk/institute-academic-development/postgraduate/taught/learning-resources/assignments


Week 8

Week 8

Oral Presentation – Maiden Speech

View the PowerPoint presentation for organising the structure of my maiden speech here!


Associated Script

Indigenous flag Acknowledgement of country – Traditional owners of the land; past, present and future
Photo of myself Introduce self to audience:

Where I grew up

Where I went to school

What I enjoyed doing/remember



Work experience

Desire for political role

Use anecdotes

Thanks Extend thanks to parents, sisters, friends, husband, children, mentors, teachers, supporters, etc.
ALP Political Alignment – Extend support to Labor party (ALP)
Key Issue #1 – GKI Resort development project Tourism – GKI Resort

Help with unemployment – use statistics

Key Issue #2 – CQUniversity Education – encourage more to study locally
Key Issue #3 – Roads Roads – improve quality and safety

Mention Mt Archer road (Pilbeam Drive) following Cyclone Marcia

Keppel Map Summarise thanks – especially Keppel electorate

Restate 3 key issues

Call to action – make an impact and leave an impression

Bill Shorten and Brittany Lauga
Bill Shorten (Federal Leader for ALP) and Brittany Lauga (Member for Keppel) Source: The Morning Bulletin, 2015



Ames (2016) suggests that in corporate environments, ‘PowerPoint is arguably the most frequently used presentation software…’ Spernjak (2014) supports this statement, affirming that PowerPoint slides are the most frequently used and discusses their usefulness. As well as being widespread, researchers have discovered that PowerPoint presentations are more interesting than any other form of presentation – especially to university students (de Wet 2006). Using a PowerPoint presentation to plan the maiden speech for assignment two was an effective activity. It was useful to my learning to map out what I need to include in each section of the maiden speech and assisted with researching previous maiden speeches for ideas. I am now confident with referring back to the PowerPoint and associated script as well as using PAIBOC when I go to write my final speech (Ames 2016).


Reference List

Ames, K 2016, COMM12033: Speech and Script Lesson 8: Writing Speech – Speech Writing: study guide, CQUniversity e-courses, https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/293243/mod_resource/content/4/COMM12033_Week8_Mod.pdf

de Wet, C F. 2006, ‘Beyond Presentations: Using PowerPoint as an Effective Instructional Tool’, Gifted Child Today, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 29-39, viewed 9 May 2016, http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.cqu.edu.au/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=daae2c57-9301-473d-b975-8bfbefb892f3%40sessionmgr4001&hid=4111

Spernjak, A. 2014, ‘Usefulness of Prezi and PowerPoint presentation’, 37th International Convention on Information & Communication Technology, pp. 762-764, viewed 9 May 2016, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.cqu.edu.au/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6859667

Week 7

Week 7

Features of a genre

In this week’s lesson, Ames (2016) discusses how Tolson (1991) argued that ‘chat-based programming was initially a term used to describe the speech genre associated with television programming.’ Tolson (1991) also explained that the main features of chat-based programming are that; ‘it is oriented toward the personal, it features wit and humour, and the risk of transgression underlies talk,’ (Ames 2016). This type of talk is all performed, even if it comes across as conversational (Ames 2016).

The video linked here is a clip from the Australian Today Show. It is obvious from the video that the two main hosts, Karl Stefanovic and Lisa Wilkinson, as well as the entertainment reporter Richard Wilkins, are considered to be good hosts. It is clear that they are experienced media performers as they are prepared, knowledgeable as to what is coming ahead and how to respond, they can think on their feet, they can easily talk to and at the camera, and they are comfortable with interacting with the audience, each other, and studio crew (Ames 2016). This particular segment was very light-hearted, improvised and humorous, however was still relevant to an upcoming event across Australia – NAPLAN testing in schools. It possessed all three features as revealed by Tolson (1991) for a chat-based program.

TODAY show.png

Piece to Camera practice

View my PTC here!


Ames (2016) states that, ‘a “piece to camera” (PTC) describes the action of talking to the camera directly.’ I believe that I have successfully delivered a PTC and have met the basic requirements by describing the scene around me. The biggest challenge when presenting a PTC is finding a balance between being confident and staying professional, as well as maintaining authenticity (Ames 2016). I definitely found this to be a challenge, as I did not want to be embarrassed by the way I spoke to the camera and the audience. I also found it difficult to memorise my PTC, as this is the most beneficial way to deliver it well. I was quite nervous when presenting the story, resulting in looking at my script more than I needed to for reassurance. I do however, believe I effectively used speech techniques such as ‘going up’ and ‘going down’ where appropriate and articulating my words clearly. In the future, I will work harder to ensure I have memorised my PTC before I deliver it in front of the camera so I look more professional and prepared.


The Clayman (1990) article explored how local interactional context can provide for reported speech in quotations from the reporter-source interrogation. It also aimed to discover how news source material is processed and incorporated into finished news stories on television and in print. In the section that discussed ‘the structure of interactionally generated source quotations,’ Clayman (1990) stated that paraphrased statements – from a variety of sources – are prevalent in newspaper and television stories. Clayman (1990) acknowledges different types of quoting practices that are used by reporters and journalists. For example, some ask questions that prompt specific answers or steer questions to get a preferred response. A key statement noted by Clayman (1990) was, ‘it is a well-established principle that the meaning of verbal, gestural and other communicative displays depends upon the contexts in which they are used.’

Clayman (1990) recognised three ways that statements can be recorded, which are as; answers (most information is derived from oral channels), relating the answer to the preceding question (timing of the response or the most common method – noting it as confirmatory or rejecting), or as nonanswers (write that the source refused to answer, a quote of what the source said, write a nonverbal action they portrayed, or note that a minimal answer was provided).

Clayman (1990) describes just some of the ways in which journalists convey what took place in an interview or press conference and how they write these in a story or article.

Source: The Conversation, 2014

How do these points relate to the way in which the maiden speech might be reported?

Relating these key points to the second assignment, the maiden speech could be reported on by taking direct quotes from the public speech and writing ‘questions’ to go alongside the responses. As already discussed in the blog post for week 6, maiden speeches are not to be interrupted, so there is no opportunity for reporters to ask questions until after the speech has concluded. It is also suggested that parts of the maiden speech would be paraphrased to create a news story or article.


Reference List

Ames, K 2016, COMM12033: Speech and Script Lesson 7: Genres of Speech – Media: study guide, CQUniversity e-courses, https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/293241/mod_resource/content/3/COMM12033_Week7_Mod.pdf

Clayman, S. 1990, ‘From talk to text: newspaper accounts of reporter-source interactions’, Media Culture & Society, vol. 12, pp. 79- 103, viewed 1 May 2016, http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/soc/faculty/clayman/Site/Publications_files/Clayman%201990%20Talk_to_Text.pdf

Karl Stefanovic 2016, Today’s Karl Stefanovic and Lisa Wilkinson return to the classroom for NAPLAN testing, video, 10 May, viewed 12 May 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qria8LcNLq0

Tolson, A. 1991, ‘Televised chat and the synthetic personality’, Broadcast Talk, ed P. Scannell, Sage Publications, London, pp. 178–200

Week 6

Week 6

PAIBOC: Assessment Item 2

Assessment Item 2 for Speech and Script requires us to take on the role of a newly appointed media adviser to a local State politician and write a parliamentary maiden speech (Ames 2016). Ames (2016) discusses in this week’s lesson the acronym developed by Kitty Locker and Stephen Kaczmarek (2007) that helps to ‘map out’ some of the things to think about when writing a speech. The acronym, PAIBOC stands for; purpose, audience, information, benefits, objections, and context. PAIBOC can be applied to Assessment Item 2, which will create a plan for starting the assignment.

The purpose of a maiden speech is to provide the opportunity for newly elected Members to make their first speech in the House of Representatives (Parliament of Australia 2014). It gives Members a chance to outline what they hope to achieve in their role in Parliament, express their political views, discuss specific issues affecting the people in their electorates, and thank their supporters and speak about their personal experiences (Parliament of Australia 2014). The second part of the assessment is to write a script for a video news release or a television news story. The purpose of a video news release is to promote or publicise a product or interest to deliver a particular message while a television news story is to inform the audience (Ames 2016).

Campbell Newman
Campbell Newman delivering his Maiden Speech in Parliament – The Courier Mail 2012

This leads on to the next topic; audience. The intended audience for a maiden speech can be almost anyone. This includes; the House of Representatives, the electorate, family and friends of the speaker, or any other supporters or members of the public who wish to hear from the speaker. It can be said that the audience for the maiden speech is the same for the video news release and news story as their general aim is to make them as public as possible and appeal to all groups.

In order to engage the audience, a maiden speech must appeal to their target group or, in this case specifically, their electorate. The type of information in the speech must be honest, but also appeal to the audience to which they want to hear their message or messages. From reading previous maiden speeches, they often include the same type of information but obviously not the same specific detail. The Members thank their family, friends, supporters and others who have helped them along the way throughout their speech but often leave most of it until towards the end (Lauga, B 2015). They speak in relative detail about the projects they have been, are currently or aim to be involved in as well as the issues they wish to address as a Member. They use this opportunity to speak of their personal life and experiences, linking them to how this will be an advantage to their role in Parliament (Byrne, B 2012). Ames (2016) explains that, ‘Parliamentary maiden speeches are often reported by media, who identify key newsworthy points.’ This leads to the conclusion that news releases and news stories contain only some of the information from the maiden speech; that is the information that is deemed as newsworthy or important. It is assumed that the reason for this is because the news release or story is much shorter than the speech and wishes to avoid regurgitating the same information.

Ames (2016) suggests writing or speaking in a way that benefits the audience. As most of the audience for a maiden speech is the public or the electorate, speakers want to reveal how they are going to make positive changes or enhancements to the lives of their audience. They do this by talking about their goals and how they are going to start making these positive changes. They also often discuss what they have previously done that has been a benefit to the audience already. It is necessary to continuously relate back to the audience and not get hung up on talking too much about your personal life without associating it with the audience and how it will be beneficial to them. In a news release or news story, the benefits heavily rely on the spoken way to which it is delivered. The audience wants to hear how the speaker will again, make positive changes and hear ‘what’s in it for them’ (Ames 2016).

As with any speech or talk, there are always those who object or disagree to some or all of the points made. For a maiden speech, it is expected that listeners may not agree with the goals of the speaker – especially if they are not in the same electorate or they did not cast them their vote. Maiden speeches are not meant to be interrupted. This is why speakers often stay away from controversial topics or subjects that will trigger a response. This is the same for the news release or story. Speakers should not dwell on controversial matters or emphasise something that may cause a listener to take offence.

‘Issues such as staff morale, economic climate, [and] social climate, will have an influence on how you are received,’ (Ames 2016). Knowing the context of your speech is essential to a good performance. The speaker must know their audience and what they want to hear as well as speaking honestly in their talk and understanding the appropriateness of their speech. As maiden speeches are spoken live to a present audience, it is easier to read the room and know how the messages are being received. It is more difficult to do this in a news release or story, as you do not receive immediate feedback. This makes the context a little different as the messages can be received by almost anyone.

Comparison between a formal speech and an impromptu speech

Listen here!

Source: The Plunge


Reference List

Ames, K (2016) Assessment Item 2 – Practical and Written Submission (Script, Delivery, and Justification, Moodle, CQUniversity, Australia.

Ames, K 2016, COMM12033: Speech and Script Lesson 6: Genres of Speech – Corporate: study guide, CQUniversity e-courses, https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/293238/mod_resource/content/5/COMM12033_Week6_Mod.pdf

Byrne, B 2012, Speech by Bill Byrne: Member for Rockhampton, viewed 25 April 2016, https://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/members/InauguralSpeech/byrn2012_05_17_23.pdf

Lauga, B 2015, Speech by Brittany Lauga: Member for Keppel, viewed 23 April 2016, https://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/members/InauguralSpeech/Brittany_Lauga-Keppel-20150505-634243733670.pdf

Parliament of Australia 2014, Get inspired: My first speech, viewed 24 April 2016, http://www.aph.gov.au/myfirstspeech/inspired

Week 5

Week 5

Notice Talk

Working in retail, part of my job is to be friendly, polite and respectfully greet customers. I noticed that after just a few months of working, my social skills dramatically improved and the way I talk to people has changed in a positive way. Not just for customers – but also for most people I greet – I noticed that I normally open with something like, ‘Hey! How are you?’ I always make sure I maintain eye contact with the person I am greeting as well. When I am greeting friends or family it is much more casual and most of the time is just a more excited ‘hey!’, ‘hi!’ or ‘how’s it going?’ often accompanied by a hug. When I say goodbye to friends or family, I often say a prolonged ‘bye!’ such as ‘byeeeeeeeee!’. When I am signing off to customers, professors, or people I am not as close with, I normally say, ‘have a nice/good day/night,’ ‘thank you,’ or ‘see you later’. ‘See you later’ is a common stereotypical Australian term to say (Australia Plus 2015). In fact, so is ‘how’s it going?’ (Australia Plus 2015).

I deal with uncomfortable moments depending on the situation and who is involved. There are never awkward silences with my close friends or family as we are comfortable with each other and do not always have to fill silence with unnecessary conversation. When meeting new people or talking to people I do not know very well, I am quite confident at keeping the conversation going by making ‘small talk’ – ‘polite conversation about unimportant or uncontroversial matters…’ (Oxford Dictionaries 2016). Norrick (2010) suggests that ‘humor makes any story more tellable, even familiar stories, and humorous stories have characteristic patterns of participation…’ I, personally, do not consciously use humor to transition to a close unless the situation calls for it. Humor for me is also only used around people I know well enough that would understand the joke.

Institutional Talk

‘“Institutional talk” is that in which a participant’s institutional or professional identities are made relevant to the work activities in which they are engaged,’ (Drew & Heritage 1992; Ames 2016). In simpler terms, it is the way people interact within an institutional environment. Looking at institutional talk in detail, an example of different forms of it is evident in interviews – both news interviews and entertainment-oriented interviews.

Taylor on Ellenn
Taylor Swift on The Ellen Show, 2014

Taking a look at an interview with Taylor Swift on The Ellen Show in comparison to an ABC News (US) interview with Malachi Love-Robinson who is under investigation for fraudulent behaviour, there are many distinctions that can be made. This specific video does not show it, but watching the interview from the beginning, Ellen introduces Taylor Swift by using humour at first and then revealing Swift’s success and telling the audience about her new album. She then exclaims her name and Swift walks out while the audience cheers. Swift was asked questions regarding her ‘deepest fear’. The way in which Ellen presented the interview – in a casual and fun way – led the audience to react by laughing and joking along. The questions were directed at Swift to answer and come across as her obtaining an irrational fear – all for entertainment purposes. There was no potential for conflict so this did not need to be managed. All disagreements were purely humorous ‘friendly banter’. This leads to the next point regarding humour being evident. This whole segment of the interview was definitely aimed at being humorous and entertaining for the audience and fans of Swift. The interview concluded with Ellen complimenting and reassuring Swift of her somewhat irrational fears while the crowd cheered in agreement.

Dr Love
‘Dr. Love’ Interview – ABC News, 2016

A very different approach was taken in the interview with Malachi Love-Robinson. The interviewee in the ‘Dr Love’ interview is introduced using his name and revealing the criminal behaviour he has been committing alongside footage of his arrest. It then shows Love-Robinson in a room with the interviewer with the first question asked. He is asked first if he is an actual doctor – which seems like an attempt to immediately cause controversy or provide Love-Robinson with the opportunity to stand up for himself. The questions are quite blatant and to the point. The interviewer picks up on any contradictions Love-Robinson makes in his responses and sometimes even speaks over him. Humour was not evident until the end of the interview between the co-anchors and the interviewer when they joked about a comment made by the interviewee. The interview overall had many moments of conflict, however, it is evident that the audience would take the side of the interviewer in each instance. Love-Robinson walked out on the interview after he felt he was not being treated fairly.

As can be seen in both of these clips, there is an obvious difference between the institutional settings of both of the interviews. Ames (2016) states that research has revealed that understanding patterns and routines is how institutional interaction is made sense of and that once people are aware of these sequences of interaction, they are able to efficiently orient their roles in the conversation. Both Taylor Swift and Ellen DeGeneres are aware of their roles in the entertainment-oriented interview as well as interviewee Matt Gutman and Malachi Love-Robinson understanding the seriousness of their interview.

Watch the Taylor Swift interview here!

Watch the Dr Love interview here!

Interaction en Masse: Audiences and Speeches Reflection

Interaction en Masse: Audiences and Speeches discusses political speeches as a form of institutional interaction. It begins by examining applause and when and why people applaud others. Different speeches and different presenters call for different lengths of applauses. For example, a politician may receive a longer applause than an award nominee (Heritage & Clayman 2010). Applause is generated when the audience wishes to express their approval or affiliation with what is being said. ‘A burst of applause must involve a large number of people starting simultaneously,’ (Heritage & Clayman 2010). It is suggested that speechwriters leave gaps in their speeches for time for applause.

The chapter mentions the formats for inviting applause. These include; contrasts (contradictions, comparisons, opposites and phrase reversals), lists (three identical words, three different words, three phrases and three sentences), and puzzle solution (establishing a problem and offering the solution). Often, these formats are combined (i.e. combinations) to produce an even more effective invitation for applause.

Applause enhances the delivery of a speech, so it is essential for successful speechwriters to use these techniques in their speeches. By incorporating these key points in speech writing, this will increase the potential for its overall effectiveness in delivery.

Christian Bertrand – Shutterstock, 2013

Reference List

Ames, K 2016, COMM12033: Speech and Script Lesson 5: Institutional Talk: study guide, CQUniversity e-courses, https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/293235/mod_resource/content/5/COMM12033_Week5_Mod.pdf

Australia Plus 2015, ‘Learn English: Aussie slang’, ABC News, 3 July, viewed 14 April 2016, http://australiaplus.com/international/2015-07-03/learn-english-aussie-slang/1465396

Chapter 18: Interaction en Masse: Audiences and Speeches in Heritage, J and Clayman, S 2010 Talk in Action: Interactions, Identities, and Institutions, Wiley- Blackwell, West Sussex, pp. 263-287.

Drew, P., and Heritage, J. (eds.) 1992, Talk at work: Interaction in institutional settings, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Norrick, N 2010, ‘Humor in interaction’, Language and Linguistics Compass, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 232-244, viewed 14 April 2016, http://ejournals.ebsco.com.ezproxy.cqu.edu.au/Direct.asp?AccessToken=95XIXI18XQDKEJZQQ9IQXU4QKXEU8X45DI&Show=Object

Oxford Dictionaries Online 2016, small talk, viewed 14 April 2016, http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/small-talk

Week 4

Week 4

Re-recording of News Script

Re-recording Reflection

After re-recording myself reading the news script, I noticed a few changes that improved the overall performance. This recording definitely had more expression throughout the script in comparison to the first one. This is due to having more confidence in presentation and learning from the professional recording by Kate Stowell. I also listened to other examples of well-performed presentations such as the one by Stanford Business School in this week’s lesson, listening to the radio and watching the news. I noticed I improved at ‘going down’ at the end of sentences and ‘going up’ or emphasising particular words where appropriate. I was articulate with my words and used some of the techniques in this week’s lesson to prepare and warm up my face, mouth and voice (Ames 2016). I did not trip over as many words this time, which would likely be due to knowing the script better. I also read the news script aloud with the Kate Stowell recording to try and match my voice to hers, which I found to be an effective technique. I believe I still have room for improvement to relax my voice more when I am presenting so it is not as stiff and further improve at deepening and projecting my voice (Ames 2016).

In a World (2013) Review

In a World, written and directed by Lake Bell – who is also the female lead – in 2013, is a romantic comedy surrounding the struggles of a vocal coach trying to make it big in the voice-over industry. The main reason she has been struggling to make it in the industry is due to the male dominance in the voiceover field as well as being her father’s daughter, who is a legend in the industry. The theme of male dominance in the industry is not made up for the movie and is however still quite an issue today. In an interview with voiceover star, Joan Baker, she states that, ‘…voiceover remains a male dominated industry. Women are relegated to female products,’ (Grundvig 2014). Tommy Malatesta cuts movie trailers at AV Squad, who adds that the female voice is ‘…soft and comforting…’ which seems to work well with children’s content, while male narrators ‘…bring a more demanding, assertive or even a confident feel to a piece, over a woman’s voice…’ (Smith 2013). Women now make up half of the industry according to Harris (2014), ‘…as clients slowly came to the realisation that female announcers appeal more to female buyers.’

In A World
In A World (2013)

Having a voice for radio requires similar skills to those who are in the voiceover industry (Madill, McCabe & Warhurst 2013). ‘As part of their occupational role, a radio performer uses his or her vocal communication skills to elicit a particular listener response by being entertaining, informative, or persuasive,’ (Madill, McCabe & Warhurst 2013). As seen in the movie, some of the techniques used are similar to the ones practiced in this week’s lesson. The vocal coach – Carol – asks one of her students – Eva Longoria – to place a cork in her mouth and practice pronouncing her vowels (In A World 2013). This week’s lesson asked us to ‘place our tongue behind, and just touching, the lower front teeth when you say a vowel,’ (Ames 2016). Some other techniques used throughout the movie to warm-up the voice were; lip smacking, keeping good posture, drinking warm drinks (eg. lemon tea), lip and tongue trills, humming, resting the voice (no talking or screaming) and relaxing the jaw and mouth (In A World 2013). The impact that these techniques have are not only to relax the speaker and make their voice sound as good as it can, but it makes it easier for the audience to listen to. A successful voice over artist will influence the listener just through the effectiveness of their voice (Madill, McCabe & Warhurst 2013).

Watch the trailer for In A World (2013)

Reference List

Ames, K 2016, COMM12033: Speech and Script Lesson 4: Performance: study guide, CQUniversity e-courses, https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/293232/mod_resource/content/6/COMM12033_Week4_Mod.pdf

Grundvig J, Huffington Post 2014, ‘The Importance of Voiceover in the Digital Age: Interview With Joan Baker’, blog post, 2 April, viewed 31 March 2016, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/james-grundvig/the-importance-of-voiceov_b_5066205.html

Harris, A 2014, ‘Meet Australia’s best voice-over artists, working in a competitive industry worth millions’, The Daily Telegraph, 8 November, viewed 4 April 2016, http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/nsw/meet-australias-best-voiceover-artists-working-in-a-competitive-industry-worth-millions/news-story/4b06cd67645d2757cb1f2a3b16374e99

In A World 2013, motion picture, Roadside Attractions, Los Angeles.

Madill, C; McCabe, P & Warhurst, S, 2013, ‘What Makes a Good Voice for Radio: Perceptions of Radio Employers and Educators’, Journal of Voice, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 217-224, viewed 4 April 2016, http://vs7pm8vz2k.search.serialssolutions.com.ezproxy.cqu.edu.au/?sid=36520&genre=article&issn=18734588&title=Journal%20Of%20Voice%3A%20Official%20Journal%20Of%20The%20Voice%20Foundation&atitle=What%20makes%20a%20good%20voice%20for%20radio%3A%20perceptions%20of%20radio%20employers%20and%20educators.&author=Warhurst%20S&authors=Warhurst%20S%3BMcCabe%20P%3BMadill%20C&date=20130301&volume=27&issue=2&spage=217

Smith, M 2013, ‘Lake Bell’s New Movie Asks Why More Women Aren’t Used to Narrate Movie Trailers’, The Hollywood Reporter, 9 August, viewed 4 April 2016, http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/lake-bells-a-world-asks-602872

Week 3

Week 3

Aristotle’s Rhetoric

Oxford Dictionaries Online (2016) defines the Latin word, rhetoric, as, ‘the art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing, especially the exploitation of figures of speech and other compositional techniques.’ This modern definition still supports how philosopher and scientist, Aristotle, defined rhetoric in his book. He defines rhetoric, ‘…as the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion,’ (Aristotle 350 B.C.E.). Ames (2016) makes the link between Aristotle and Shakespeare and how their writing is still important and relevant in modern times as they discuss themes that are still current even though they were written hundreds of years ago.

One of the key points Aristotle makes about rhetorical speech is that, ‘rhetoric falls into three divisions, determined by the three classes of listeners to speeches,’ (Aristotle 350 B.C.E.). He states that these are political, forensic, and the ceremonial oratory of display. The reason for this is that they each represent a different part of time. Aristotle (350 B.C.E.) states that political speaking (urging to do or not to do something) is concerned with the future, forensic speaking (attacking or defending somebody) is concerned with the past, and the ceremonial oratory of display (praising or censuring somebody) is concerned with the present.

Aristotle treats rhetoric as a science and believes that the study of it can assist in the defence of truth and justice (SparkNotes Editors 2005). Another key point Aristotle (350 B.C.E.) makes about rhetorical speech is that each kind of rhetoric has its own appropriate style – written and spoken. This again, is still relevant today and is even the name of this course; Speech and Script. He also discusses mainly that enthymemes are the substance of rhetorical persuasion, meaning where one of the premises spoken is not clearly revealed (Aristotle 350 B.C.E. & Oxford Dictionaries Online 2016).

My Use of Rhetoric

Listen here: https://soundcloud.com/monicamallory/week-3-blog-post

Review: In Defense of Rhetoric: No Longer Just for Liars


The video – produced by graduate students in the MA in Professional Communication program at Clemson University – ‘…explains why popular notions of rhetoric are inaccurate and demonstrates how rhetoric actually produces new knowledge,’ (Clemson English 2011). At the beginning, Clemson English (2011) defines rhetoric as, ‘the study of the technique of using language effectively.’ They discuss how all choices are rhetorical including; when we persuade, when we make purchases, and when we make emotional appeals.

Another key argument stated was when there was talk of making rhetoric a discipline across universities. This movement did not progress however, as rhetoricians also wanted rhetoric to weld everything together (Clemson English 2011). They add that at many points in the history of rhetoric, people began to suppose that it was not necessary to learn the process of communication and therefore were not accepting or rhetorical studies. As said in the video, rhetoric is something that cannot be suppressed, as it is prevalent in culture and in language (Clemson English 2011). It is beneficial for students as it is not only the forefront of technology, but influences the way we communicate throughout our lives.


Reference List

Ames, K 2016, COMM12033: Speech and Script Lesson 3: Rhetoric: study guide, CQUniversity e-courses, https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/293229/mod_resource/content/6/COMM12033_Week3_Mod.pdf

Aristotle. (350 B.C.E.) Rhetoric. Rhys Roberts, W. (Trans). Retrieved from http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/rhetoric.mb.txt

Clemson English 2011, In Defense of Rhetoric: No Longer Just for Liars, viewed 26 March 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BYMUCz9bHAs&feature=youtu.be&hd=1

Oxford Dictionaries Online 2016, Enthymeme, viewed 25 March 2016, http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/enthymeme

Oxford Dictionaries Online 2016, Rhetoric, viewed 25 March 2016, http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/rhetoric

SparkNotes Editors 2005, SparkNote on Aristotle, viewed 25 March 2016, http://www.sparknotes.com/biography/aristotle/section9.rhtml